Below is a list of crocheting abbreviations to help you understand crochet patterns. A few notes about some symbol first though.
Asterisks (*) are used to indicate that a group of stitches or steps are to be repeated a specific number of times.
Example * ch 2, dc 3 repeat from * twice.
This means you are to repeat chain 2 and 3 double crochet, two times
Parentheses ( ) are used to enclose directions for larger sizes in the pattern. They also may indicate that the groups of stitches, which they enclose, are to be repeated the number of times stated.
We all know in knitting that we check the gauge of stitches and rows. This is often over looked in crochet. But anytime you are making something a particular size you must check gauge, so don't overlook this in your crochet.
Tip: You could mark 1 inch from the end of your crochet hook with a permanent marker. This way you will always have available a quick check your gauge of rows and stitches.
These are by no means a complete list of crochet abbreviations but it is a very good list for beginners.
sc -- single crochet
ch st -- chain stitch
hdc -- half-double crochet
dc -- double crochet
sl st -- slip stitch
trc -- triple crochet
yo -- yarn over
tr -- treble crochet
sp -- space
sk -- skip
pat st -- pattern stitch